Investopedia: How Is Productivity Calculated?

Productivity measures the efficiency of a company’s production process. It is calculated by dividing the outputs produced by a company by the inputs used in its production process. Common inputs are labor hours, capital and natural resources, while outputs are…

Investopedia: ETF vs. ETN: What’s The Difference?

ETF vs. ETN: An Overview Exchange traded funds (ETFs) are the hottest thing since the mutual fund. In fact, the investment product is on track to replace mutual funds with its often-lower fee structure and easier-to-understand stock-like price action. ETFs…

Investopedia: Understanding Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration

Horizontal vs. Vertical Integration: An Overview Horizontal and vertical integrations are strategies used by businesses in the same industry or production process. In a horizontal integration, a company takes over another that operates at the same level of the value chain in…

Investopedia: Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: What’s the Difference?

Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up: An Overview Top-down and bottom-up approaches are methods used to analyze and choose securities. However, the terms also appear in many other areas of business, finance, investing, and economics. While the two rhetorics can be common terms,…